Previous work done in Egypt related to Greening the Sector:

  • 1 diagnostic/background studies addressing the sector was identified
  • 1 Strategic Vision Paper for the sector have been issued in 2017.
  • Relevant laws and regulations for the sector were listed
  • 1 review of the sector’s strategies and action plans was published
  • 5 Major projects addressing greening the water resources sector have been identified
Title & Link Authors & Sponsors Date Remarks
Water And Wastewater Sector In Egypt: “Sustainability, Opportunities And Challenges” Funded by: EU


This report offers a background and overview of the water and wastewater sector in Egypt.

Title & Link

Authors & Sponsors



A 2030 Strategic Vision for Wastewater Reuse in Egypt

Published by: Arab Water Council Journal

Author: Khaled AbuZeid, PhD, PE


This strategic vision provides options for reuse specific to each governorate indicating

the future projection for reuse, in terms of recommended levels of wastewater treatment, and projected amounts of produced wastewater, and suggested mode of reuse and whether it should be directly reused or conveyed by drains or canals for reuse further downstream.

Title & Link

Authors & Sponsors



Review and Analysis of Status of Implementation of

Wastewater Strategies And/or Action Plans

National Report- Egypt

Funded by: EU


Within the scope of the EU-funded Sustainable Water Integrated Management – Support Mechanism (SWIM-SM) Project, a study was implemented for the review and analysis of the development and implementation status of wastewater strategies and/or action plans in three project countries (Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia).

Title & Link

Authors & Sponsors



Bahr El Bakar Waste Water Treatment Facility

Another link

Client: Department of Military Works – Engineering Authority of the Armed Forces

Contractors: Orascom and Arab Contractors

Consultant: Khatib & Alami


The EGP 18 bn Bahr El Baqar wastewater treatment plant is the largest facility of its kind in the world, treating around 5 mn cubic meters of water from the Bahr El Baqar basin every day. The 155-feddan facility has four treatment lines, each with the capacity to process 1.25 mn cbm of water each day.

Gabel El-Asfar wastewater treatment plant

Another link


Funded by: African Development Bank


The Gabel El-Asfar plant is the first of its kind and largest such facility in the Middle East and Africa region, and one of the largest worldwide. The plant is already boosting livelihoods, improving the environment, quality of life and health of millions of residents.

Upgrading and Expanding of Abu-Rawash Wastewater Treatment Plant

Funded by: African Development Bank


The Project aims at upgrading and extending the capacity of the existing Abu-Rawash Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) from primary treatment of 1.2 million cubic meters per day (m3/day) to a secondary treatment of 1.6 million m3/day.

Water and Wastewater Management Programme

Commissioned by: German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Lead executing agency: Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, MALR; Ministry for Housing, Utilities and Urban Communities, MoHUUC

Implementing Agency: GIZ


To improve water supply and wastewater management, the project cooperates with the Holding Company for Water and Wastewater and its subordinate companies throughout the country. Here, too, there are plans to reduce water losses. It is also planned that charges for major customers will increase, energy will be saved and sewage sludge used to generate power

IWSP (Integrated Water and Wastewater Services Programme)

Funded by: European Investment Bank


This project includes (i) capital investments to rehabilitate, upgrade or install new infrastructure (water treatment plants, waste water treatment plants and water and sewer networks) as well as (ii) accompanying measures to strengthen the institutional capacity in the sector.

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Authors & Sponsors




Funded by: ADB , AFD , and GOE


The project will have a direct positive impact on its beneficiaries largely through improved water quality in the drainage system, including Lake Manzala and eventually the Mediterranean Sea. Some of this water is used for agriculture while the rest ends up in the Lake, where fishing is a major source of income for those living along its shores. Reduction of pollution in the Mediterranean Sea, the eventual destination of the effluent will also promote improved tourism in the country by providing clean environment.

Wastewater: From Waste to Resource

Study Report  


International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank


Treated wastewater reused for irrigation Sludge is sold to cement industry—extra revenue stream— and could potentially be used as a fertilizer in agriculture.

The wastewater treatment technology depends on Line of water with four lines of treatment in pretreatment and primary decantation, six lines in activated sludge treatment, 10 lines in tertiary treatment (micro-screening), and chlorine disinfection. Line of sludge with: six lines of thickening (three for primary sludge and three for secondary sludge), four lines of anaerobic digestion, and eight lines of dewatering.

Preliminary & Detailed Design of Wastewater Treatment Plants – Damietta Governorate

Funded by: KFW, EIB, AfD, EU


The resource efficiency of this study is focused on how to integrate the eco-designing to ensure the effective uses of resources.

Wastewater facility construction of New Cairo PPP WWTP

Funded by: Construction Authority for Potable Water and Wastewater (CAPW)


Chemonics Egypt Consultants was awarded two (2) contracts with both CAPW representing NUCA in this contract and Orasqualia (THE PROJECT COMPANY) to provide independent consultancy services during the periods of Construction and operating and maintaining the new WWTP. Chemonics Egypt Consultants was appointed in this project as a member of the performance monitoring committee which is the dispute resolver between the two parties.

Renovation and Extension of Wastewater Treatment Plants in Beheira Governorate

Funded by: Holding Company for Water and Wastewater


This project aimed at rehabilitating the following:

Mansheit EI- Horia Wastewater Treatment Plant and increasing its capacity from 12,000 m3/day to 20,000 m3/day;

Nekla EI-Enab Wastewater Treatment Plant and increasing its capacity from 3,000 m3/day to 5,000 m3/day; and

Waked Wastewater Treatment Plant and increasing its capacity from 3,000 m3/day to 5,000 m3/day.

Guidelines manual of industrial waste management

Published by: EEAA


This guide manual screening the main concepts of resource efficiency including Cleaner production concept  for using less raw materials, resources and energy and with less residual emissions and emissions to reduce negative environmental impacts and risks to humans and the environment.

Guide manual on e-monitoring of the national industrial wastewater networks  

Published by: EEAA


This guide manual screening the main concepts of resource efficiency including electronic monitoring for identifying the efficiency potentials.

Title & Link

Authors & Sponsors



Wastewater: From Waste

to Resource. The Case of New Cairo, Egypt

Published by: World Bank


This paper includes a set of case studies which highlight innovative financing and contractual arrangements, innovative regulations and legislation and innovative project designs that promote integrated planning, resource recovery and that enhance the financial and environmental sustainability of wastewater treatment plants.



Author and Title


Year Published



Sustainable Wastewater Management

Abou-Elela, Sohair et al. Sustainable Wastewater Management in an Egyptian Industrial city

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16




Sustainable Development – Community of Practice

Armanios, Daniel Erian. Sustainable Development as a Community of Practice: Insights from Rural Water Projects in Egypt.

Sustainable Development, vol. 20




Sustainable Management of Municipal Wastewater in Egypt

 Abdel Wahaab, Rifaat et al.Toward achieving sustainable management of municipal wastewater sludge in Egypt: The current status and future prospective

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 127